Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

PETROCARIBE AND THE VENEZUELAN CLAIM OVER THE ESSEQUIBO: A POLITICAL CULTURE VERSUS THE POLICY OF THE CULTURE

María Gabriela Mata Carnevali

Abstract


Cultural identity can define political interests through particular policies that advance such identity, while, on the other hand, there is political culture where political calculations are pre-eminent. Both of these tendencies are present in the case involving the Venezuelan energy initiative PETROCARIBE and its very poor outcomes. The PETROCARIBE initiative launched by Hugo Chávez as a part of a pact to assist in the economic and social development of countries in the Caribbean while enhancing Venezuelan ideological influence and regional power countered challenges, among which were cultural barriers embedded in the very making of the Carribean as a region. Cultural barriers were also evident in the recent ‘betrayal’ of Venezuela by the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), which backed Guyana over Venezuela in the competing claims over the territory of Essequibo. Is culture the real obstacle to Venezuela’s quest for its Caribbean identity? Though there are many examples in the world of successful integration involving countries of different cultures, this article argues that the PETROCARIBE initiative in a region whose region-ness is complex and more imagined than real was a huge political mistake that may contribute to the fall of the revolutionary government in Venezuela.

 


Keywords


Venezuela; PETROCARIBE; Essequibo; political culture; cultural identity.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acuña, R. 2014. Petrocaribe: A project for development in the Caribbean and Central America? In Democracy, revolution and geopolitics in Latin America: Venezuela and the international discontent ed. Luis Fernando Angosto-Fernández. Abingdon: Routledge.

Alcalay, M. 2003. Mecanismo de impulso para promover la Cooperación Sur-Sur. SP/XVI. RDCIALC/Di Nº 40. XVI Reunión de Directores de Cooperación Internacional de América Latina y el Caribe. Available at http://lanic.utexas.edu/~sela/AA2K3/ESP/docs/Coop/Coop- Inter/Di40.htm (accessed March 2011).

Anderson, B. 1991. Imagined communities. London: Verso. Journal of International Service.

Available at http://www.american.edu/sis/jis/upload/6Poertner.pdf (accessed July 2015).

Boyd, S. 2015. Venezuela’s inflation nightmare signals default may come sooner. Available at

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-07-15/venezuela-s-772-inflation-meansdefault- may-come-a-lot-sooner (accessed August 2015).

Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat. 2015. Available at http://www.caricom.org/jsp/ pressreleases/press_releases_2015/pres106_15.jsp?null&prnf=1 (accessed August 2015).

Caricom 2015. Communiqué issued at the conclusion of the thirty-sixth regular meeting of the conference of heads of government of the Caribbean community, 2–4 July 2015, Bridgetown, Barbados. Available at http://today.caricom.org/2015/07/05/communique/ (accessed August 2015).

Coppola, F. 2015. The impending collapse of Venezuela. FORBES. Available at http://www.forbes. com/sites/francescoppola/2015/01/13/the-impending-collapse-of-venezuela/ (accessed August 2015).

El Nacional 2015. Runrunes. Alto Guyana. Available at http://runrun.es/runrunes-de-bocaranda/ runrunes/211842/los-runrunes-de-bocaranda-hoy-09-07-2015.html (accessed July 2015).

El Nacional 2015. Caricom reitera: El Esequibo es de Guyana. Available at http://www.elnacional. com/politica/Caricom-reitera-Esequibo-Guyana_0_679732131.html (accessed August 2015).

El Universal 2015. Petróleo venezolano cae a $38 por barril. Available at http://www.eluniversal. com/economia/150820/petroleo-venezolano-cae-a-38-por-barril (accessed August 2015).

El Universal 2015. Granger: Guyana is on the side of law; we are victims of an aggression.

Available at http://www.eluniversal.com/nacional-y-politica/150707/granger-guyana-is-onthe- side-of-law-we-are-victims-of-an-aggression (accessed August 2015).

El Universal 2015. Guyana President: Venezuela is ‘a monkey on our back’. Available at http://

www.eluniversal.com/nacional-y-politica/150702/guyana-president-venezuela-is-amonkey- on-our-back (accessed August 2015).

El Universal 2015 Economista Pedro Palma advirtió que inflación este año puede superar 140%.

Available at http://www.eluniversal.com/economia/150617/economista-pedro-palmaadvirtio- que-inflacion-este-ano-puede-superar-1 (accessed August 2015).

El Universal 2015. República Dominicana cancela con descuento de 52% su deuda con Venezuela.

Available at http://www.eluniversal.com/economia/150130/republica-dominicana-cancelacon- descuento-de-52-su-deuda-con-venezuela (accessed August 2015).

Entorno Inteligente 2015. Guayana gana terreno ante silencio de Venezuela. Available at http://

www.entornointeligente.com/articulo/1278900/VENEZUELA-Guyana-gana-terreno-antesilencio- de-Venezuela-15062012 (accessed August 2015).

García, C. 2015. How to understand the Caribbean space? Manuscript in preparation.

Gilderhus, Mark T. 2006. The Monroe Doctrine: Meanings and implications. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36(1).

Haggerty, R. A. (ed.). 1990. Venezuela: A country study. Foreign Relations. GPO for the Library of Congress, Washington. Available at http://countrystudies.us/venezuela/50.htm (accessed August 2015).

HRW 2015. Venezuela: Human Rights before the United Nations Human Rights Committee.

Available at https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/06/29/venezuela-human-rights-united-nationshuman- rights-committee (accessed August 2015).

Isidro, M.P. 2000. Análisis Crítico del Problema Fronterizo ‘Venezuela-Gran Bretaña’, in La Reclamación Venezolana sobre la Guayana Esequiba, Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales, Caracas.

Jacome, F. 2011. Petrocaribe: La fase actual de la diplomacia petrolera venezolana en el Caribe. Policy paper 40. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

Kaiteur News June 7, 2015. New Venezuelan decree claims ownership over Guyana’s continental shelf. Available at http://www.kaieteurnewsonline.com/2015/06/07/new-venezuelan-decreeclaims- ownership-over-guyanas-continental-shelf/ (accessed August 2015).

Maduradas. July 27, 2014. Los chulos nos acaban! Crisis económica compromete viabilidad de Petrocaribe. Available at http://www.maduradas.com/los-chulos-nos-acaban-crisiseconomica- compromete-viabilidad-de-petrocaribe/ (accessed August 2015).

Marcano. April, 2015. El país está en riesgo de perder 50% del territorio del Delta. Available at

http://analitica.com/opinion/el-pais-esta-en-riesgo-de-perder-50-del-territorio-del-delta-2/ (accessed August 2015).

Mercopress. August 12, 2015. CARICOM tells Venezuela it supports Guyana’s integrity in territorial dispute. Available at http://en.mercopress.com/2015/08/12/caricom-tellsvenezuela- it-supports-guyana-s-integrity-in-territorial-dispute (accessed August 2015).

Naim Moises. March 31, 2015.The hidden effects of cheap oil. Available at http://www.theatlantic. com/international/archive/2015/03/the-hidden-consequences-of-low-oil-prices/389156/ (accessed August 2015).

Notitarde. August 21, 2012. Cuba y El Salvador ‘revenden’ petróleo que Venezuela regala.

Available at http://www.notitarde.com/Pa%C3%ADs/Cuba-y-El-Salvador-revendenpetr% C3%B3leo-que-Venezuela-regala/2012/08/22/127393 (accessed August 2015).

Otálvora. July 11, 2015. Maduro da paso atrás ante Colombia y Guyana. Available at http://www. diariolasamericas.com/4848_venezuela/3216125_maduro-da-paso-atras-ante-colombia-yguyana. html (accessed August 2015).

Poertner M. 2011. Venezuelan oil diplomacy and voting in the U.N. General Assembly. Journal of International Service. Available at http://www.american.edu/sis/jis/archive-spring2011.cfm (accessed July 2015).

Premdas, R. 1996. Ethnicity and identity in the Caribbean: Decentering a myth. Working paper #234. Kellogg Institute, USA. Available at https://kellogg.nd.edu/publications/ workingpapers/WPS/234.pdf (accessed August 2015).

Laughlin, N. 2006. What ‘Caribbean’ can mean. The Arts Journal 2(2).

TeleSur. 2015. 10 Years of PetroCaribe: Oil for development not profit. Available at

http://www.telesurtv.net/english/telesuragenda/Petrocaribe-Oil-Bloc-to-Meet-in- Venezuela-20150220-0036.html (accessed August 2015).

The Economist. October 25, 2014. Cheaper oil: Winners and losers. Available at http://www. economist.com/news/international/21627642-america-and-its-friends-benefit-falling-oilprices- its-most-strident-critics (accessed August 2015).

The Guardian. June 22, 2015. Venezuela legislative elections date set for 6 December. Available

at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/22/venezuela-legislative-elections-date-set- 6-december (accessed August 2015).

The Guardian. September 11, 2015. Venezuela opposition denounces ‘anti-democratic regime’ after leader’s prison sentence. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/11/ venezuela-opposition-leader-leopoldo-lopez-prison-sentence-outrage-worldwide (accessed September 2015).

Trading Economics. 2015. Venezuela inflation rate 1973–2015. Available at http://www. tradingeconomics.com/venezuela/inflation-cpi (accessed August 2015).

República Bolivariana de Venezuela. 2015. Embajada en Guyana. PetroCaribe. Available at http:// guyana.embajada.gob.ve/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89:acuerdopetrocaribe& catid=1:contenido-embajada&Itemid=9〈=es (accessed August 2015).

Romero, M.T. 2004. Polítca exterior venezolana. El proyecto democrático 1958–1998. Caracas: El Nacional.

SELA. February 10, 2010. Venezuela condona deuda millonaria de Haití con Petrocaribe.

http://www.sela.org/es/prensa/servicio-informativo/2010/02/20100210/venezuelacondona- deuda-millonaria-de-hait%C3%AD-con-petrocaribe/ (accessed August 2015).

Taylhardat, A. July 16, 2015. El decreto 1859. Available at http://www.el-nacional.com/adolfo_ taylhardat/decreto_0_665333572.html (accessed August 2015).

Venezuela Analítica. July 7, 2015. Cronología del conflicto Venezuela-Guyana. Available at http:// analitica.com/actualidad/actualidad-nacional/cronologia-del-conflicto-venezuela-guyana/

(accessed August 2015).

Waller. 2005. What to do about Venezuela. The Center for Security Policy. Available at http:// www.venezuelanet.org/WhattodoAboutVzla.pdf (accessed August 2015).

Zanony, R. 2015. Petróleo: Precios y energías renovables. In Mata Mollejas, Luis (ed.), La dinámica del poder. Caracas: Fundación Alberto Adriani.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.