WORD ORDER VARIATION OF THE VERBAL SENTENCE IN A JERUSALEM-AMARNALETTER, EA 290
The reason for the correspondence between the vassals of Syria-Palestine and their sovereign, the pharaoh of Egypt, is instigated by the external and internal turmoil in Syria-Palestine during the Late Bronze Age.These letters were written in theWestern Peripheral Akkadian dialect (WPA) with some West Semitic (WS) trends, by the scribes of the vassals in Israel andthe scribes of the pharaoh. One such trend is the word order, and variations from it, in the verbal sentences.This variation in wordorder was to effect some special emphasis or some nuance of the appropriate element in the specific sentence. Thevariation inword-order was brought about by certain (emphasising) words such as anuma, Å¡anita, inuma and amurmi and/or constructions such assubject fronting or object fronting, parallel sentence arrangement and chiastic sentence arrangement.However, even this word order and the variation thereof shows no consistency.The investigation of the word order and its variation functioning in the verbal sentences of the Jerusalem-Amarna letters as in EA 285-290 to the pharaoh shows that these Amarna letters â€”even those with similar content as in the other letters to the pharaoh â€”must have been written by the different scribes of the vassals. This leads to the conclusion that each scribe had his own version of an â€œinterlanguageâ€ that he used in his correspondence.
Albright, W F 1957. From the Stone Age to Christianity. Baltimore: The Johns HopkinsPress.
Bezold, C & Budge, E A W 1892. The Tell-el-Amarnatablets in the British Museum.London: British Museum.
BÃ¶hl, F M Th. De Liagre 1909. Die Sprache der Amarnabriefe. Leipsig: J C HinrichsscheBuchhandlung.
Cambridge Ancient History, 1970â€“1975. Revised edition. Vols I and II. London: CUP.(CAH)
Cochavi-Rainey, Z 1990. Tenses and modes in Cuneiform texts, written by Egyptianscribes in the Late Bronze Age,UF22:5â€“23.
Finley, T J 1979. Word order in the clause structure of Syrian Akkadian. Los Angeles: UCLA.
Gesenius, W, Kautsch, E and Cowley, EA1910. Geseniusâ€™Hebrew grammar. SecondEnglishedition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Gianto, A 1990. Word order variation in the Akkadian ofByblos.Rome: EditricePontificio Instituto Biblico.
Hays, J L 1984. Dialectical variation in the syntax ofco-ordination andsubordination inWestern Akkadian of the El-Amarna period. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation: UCLA.
Hess, R S 1990. Rhetorical forms in EA 162, UF 22:137â€“148.
Hock, H H 1986. Principles of historical linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Huehnergard, J 1979. The Akkadian dialects of Charchemis and Ugarit. UnpublishedPh.D. thesis. Harvard University.
Izreâ€™el, Sh. 1991. Amurru Akkadian. A linguistic study.Vols.I and II. Atlanta, Georgia:Scholars Press.
Knudtzon, J A  1964. Die El-Amarna Tafeln. VAB 1&2.Aalen: Otto Zeller.
Liverani, M 1979. Malibu: Undena Publications.
Moran, W L 1960. Early Canaanite yaqtula, Or 29:1â€“19.
_______ 1992. The Amarna letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Muntingh, L M 1995. An Amarna-letter EA 162 from apharaoh to Aziru of Amurru inlight of recent research, JSem7/2:162â€“195.
Noth, M1972. The history of Israel. Translated by Stanley Godman. London:A. and C. Black Ltd.
Rainey, A F 1978. El Amarna Tablets357-379.Supplement to J.A. Knudtzon, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, 2ndedition, revised. Alter Orient und AltesTestament, Verlag Butzon & Bercker.Kevelaer:Neukirchen-Vluyn.
_______1988.Some presentation particles in the Amarna letters from Canaan, UF20:209â€“220.
_______1989/1990. A new translation of the Amarna letters after 100 years, Afo36/37:57â€“75.
_______1996. Canaanite in the Amarna tablets: a linguistic analysis of the mixeddialects used by scribes from Canaan. Vols. I-IV. Leiden: Brill.
Reviv, H 1996. On urban representative institutes and self-governmentin Syria-Palestinein the second half of the second millennium BC, JESHO12:283â€“297.
Riemschneider, K K 1969. Lehrbuch des Akkadischen. Leipzich: VEB VerlagEnzyklopedie.
Romaine, S 1988. Pidgin and Creole languages.London: Longman.
Schroeder, O 1973. Die Thontafeln von El-Amarna.VorderasiatischeSchriftdenkmÃ¤ler der kÃ¶niglichen
Museen zu Berlin, Heft XI und XII.OsnabrÃ¼ck:Oto Zeller Verlag.
Selinker, L 1972. Interlanguage, International Review of AppliedLinguistics 10:209-230.
Ungnad, A 1992. Akkadian grammar. Transl. H A Hoffner, Jr. Atlanta, Georgia: ScholarsPress.
Van der Westhuizen, J P 1991. Morphology and morphosyntax of the verb in the AmqiAmarna letters, JSem 3/1:54-58.
_______1993. Morphology and morphosyntax of the noun in the AmqiAmarna letters,JSem 5/1:18-56.
_______ 1994. Word-order variation of the verbal sentence in AmqiAkkadian,JSem6/2:117-153.
_______ 2012. An Egypt Amarna letter (EA162) and word-order variations of the verbal sentence,JSem21/2:374â€“415.
Van Soldt, W H 1991. Studies in the Akkadian of Ugarit, dating and grammar.Neukirchen-Vluyn: Butzon & Bercker Kevelaer.
Von Soden, W 1952.Grundriss der Akkadischen Grammatik.An. Or. 33, Roma:Pontificium Institutum Biblicum.(GAG)
Winckler, H 1889. Der Thontafelund von El Amarna. Berlin: W. Spemann.