Angelic Aspects of Ezekiel’s ‘Living Beings’ in 4Q403 Shirot ‘Olat Hashabbat. Part I: The Seventh Song

  • Annette Evans University of the Free State
Keywords: Ezekiel’s ‘Living Creatures’, 4Q403, he Seventh Song


The main features of the Seventh Song are the call to praise and angelic activity. Certain descriptions of the movement of Ezekiel’s “living beings†in Ezekiel 1 and 10 are echoed in the description of angelic activity in 4Q403 fragments 1i and 1ii which contain the Seventh Song of Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (Shirot ‘Olat Hashabbat). This article compares passages in the Seventh Song which relate semantically and, to some extent, lexically to specific aspects of angelic movement already identified in previous research on Ezekiel 1 and 10. It is hypothesised that the crucial phrase “in their undertakings/missions†indicates that the author of Shirot ‘Olat Hashabbat recognised the underlying description of angelic messenger activity in Ezekiel 1 and 10, and developed it further in the Seventh Song.