“The Rise and Fall of the Ciskei Homeland and Bantustan Leadership” 1972 - 1994

  • Fezile Cindi
Keywords: Bantustan Leadership, Ciskei Bantustan, Homeland Citizenship, Traditional Leaders


This paper will grapple with notions of celebration, commemoration and leadership as narratives of memory in particular in the Ciskei Bantustan. It is to remember and reflect on our past to understand the present. It will also focus on the history of the Ciskei Homeland, leadership values, and role of traditional leaders, rural development, legislative imperatives, and system of separate development, coups, suppression, torture and killings that happened during this era between 1972 to 1994.