Freedoms for Women as Outlined in the Freedom Charter: The Progress of Women in Education
Women at all levels of South African society began articulating their interests in the 1950s, with the Womenâ€™s Charter preceding the Freedom Charter by a year. Since 1994 South Africa has taken bold steps to advance the interests of women and made great strides in the quest for gender equality and womenâ€™s empowerment. However, persistent disparities remain in South Africa between women and men with regard to senior positions in the higher education sector. Drawing on a number of dialogues and discussions, this paper seeks to analyse the reasons behind gender inequality in education and reveal whether patriarchal values and stereotypes related to women in certain sectors of South African society are a factor. This paper will contend that despite legislation protecting women, both subtle and overt forms of discrimination still exist in the sphere of higher education. The paper also seeks to analyse challenges still being faced as well as offer possible solutions to the gender inequality that continues to prevail in the education sector.
Byrne, D. (Head: Institute for Gender Studies at the University of South Africa), personal interview, September 17, 2015, Pretoria.
Callinicos, L. 2004. Oliver Tambo: Beyond the Engeli Mountains. Cape Town: David Philip.
Chisholm, L. A. 2005. Gender Equity in South African Education: 1994â€“2004: Perspectives from Research, Government and Unions. Conference proceedings. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
City Press. 2013. â€œMotshekga: Only 36% of School Principals are Women.â€ August 23. http://www.news24.com/Archives/City-Press/Motshekga-Only-36-of-school-principals-are-women-20150429 (accessed July 9, 2015).
Coetzee, D. (Professor of Education, University of the Free State), personal interview, July 17, 2015, Pretoria.
Fester, G. 2014. â€œDiary of a Teacher: Reflections of a South African MP on Education during Apartheid.â€ March 4. https://strifefinal.wordpress.com/2014/03/04/diary-of-a-teacher-reflections-of-a-south-african-mp-on-education-during-apartheid/ (accessed May 23, 2017).
Finnegan, W. 2004. Crossing the line: a year in the land of apartheid. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hay-Swemmer, D. (Dean of Research, University of KwaZulu-Natal), personal interview, September 11, 2015, Durban.
Higgs, L. (Professor, College of Education, Unisa), personal interview, September 10, 2015, Pretoria.
Holsinger, D. B., and W. J. Jacob, eds. 2008. Inequality in Education: Comparative and International Perspectives. Hong Kong: Springer Science & Business Media.
John, V. 2015. â€œVast Varsity Pay Gap Exposed.â€ Mail and Guardian, January 23. http://mg.co.za/article/2015-01-23-vast-varsity-pay-gap-exposed (accessed July 9, 2015).
Kallaway, P. 2002. The History of Education Under Apartheid, 1948â€“1994: The Doors of Learning and Culture shall be Opened. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa.
Mabokela, R. O. 2002. Voices of Conflict: Desegregating South African Universities. New York: Routledge.
Malie, S. 2011. â€œChallenges Faced by Executive Women in Financial Service Companies and their Coping Mechanisms.â€ MBA dissertation, University of Cape Town.
Moodly, A. L. 2015. â€œGender Equity in South African Higher Education Leadership: Where Are We Twenty Years After Democracy?â€ Journal of Social Sciences 42 (3): 229â€“238.
Mushungwa, P. (Executive Director: Human Capital and Transformation, University of Pretoria), personal interview, September 30, 2015, Pretoria.
Netshiangana, T. (Department of Educational Leadership and Management, University of South Africa), personal interview, July 27, 2015, Pretoria
Parker, D. (acting deputy director-general for universities, Department of Higher Education and Training), personal interview, July 30, 2015, Pretoria.
Pithouse, K., C. Mitchell, and R. Moletsane, eds. 2009. Making Connections: Self-study & Social Action. New York: Peter Lang.
Pogrund, B. 2014. Drawing Fire: Investigating the Accusations of Apartheid in Israel. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Sono, T. 1999. African Teachers' Struggle for Educational Justice in South Africa, 1906â€“1996: TUATA in the Centre of the Battle. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Soudien, C., and P. Kallaway. 1999. Education, Equity and Transformation. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media.
Van Der Berg, S. and R. Burger. 2010. â€œTeacher Pay in South Africa.â€ Stellenbosch: working paper, Department of Economics and the Bureau for Economic Research, University of Stellenbosch.