The Issue of Implementation Enforcement: SADC's Power Mediation in Madagascar

Keywords: Madagascar (2009-2013), SADC, power mediation, implementation enforcement, mediated agreements

Abstract

This article argues that the international community is increasingly becoming involved in the domestic affairs of states and that this involvement can be described as part of international responsibility to promote peace and security. The role that an external party plays as a mediator in a transition or peace process is by definition a form of intervention. This article argues that this understanding of mediation should be broadened to include the responsibility to oversee the implementation (or enforcement) of the mediated agreement. The case of Madagascar (2009–2013) is used to investigate whether such enforcement is already accepted in practice and what some of the complications are. The article’s conclusions acknowledge that such a view of the mediator’s enforcement responsibility will be controversial, especially when mediation is used as a strategic instrument of power politics. In mediation, more attention is normally paid to its preparations and the negotiation process than to the implementation phase. Elections, as part of a transition process, create a critical tipping point for external enforcement, because after elections an external presence will be an unpopular idea for the national role players. Enforcement by actors who have sufficient power leverage is more viable than enforcement by mediators who have little power but a great deal of political or diplomatic authority (such as former presidents or senior diplomats). Implementation enforcement is more likely when it is motivated by interest-based considerations than by normative values. In conclusion, enforcement of agreement implementation is generally supported by the international community as a rhetorical exercise, but it is not yet embraced as a norm for international behaviour.

References

BBC News. 2014. “Madagascar ex-president Ravalomanana arrested on returnâ€, 3 October 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-29594895, retrieved on 10 July 2015

Bentley, Christina A. and Roger Southall. 2005. An African Peace Process: Mandela, South Africa and Burundi. Cape Town: HSRC Press

Bremer III, L. Bremer. 2006. My Year in Iraq: The struggle to build a future of hope. New York: Simon & Schuster

Communiqué, African Union Peace and Security Council, PSC/PR/COMM.(CCCLXXVI), 16 May 2013

The Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Sudan People’s Liberation Army’, Nairobi, 9 January 9, 2011

Dallaire, Roméo. 2003. Shake Hands with the Devil: The failure of humanity in Rwanda. London: Arrow Books

Feuille de Route la Sortie de Crise à Madagascar – Engagements des Acteurs Politiques Malgaches, 9 mars 2011, (translated from the original French text)

Holbrooke, Richard. 1999. To End a War. New York: The Modern Library

ICG-M. 1 July 2013. 7th Meeting of the International Contact Group on Madagascar, https://appablog.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/7th-meeting-of-the-international-contact-group-on-madagascar-icg-m/, retrieved on 10 July 2017

ICG-M. 6 September 2013. Conclusions of the 8th consultative meeting of the International Contact Group on Madagascar (ICG-M), http://peaceau.org/en/article/conclusions-of-the-8th-consultative-meeting-of-the-international-contact-group-on-madagascar-icg-m, retrieved on 9 July 2017

ICG-M. 28 March 2014. Conclusions of the 9th Meeting of the International Contact Group on Madagascar (ICG-M) Antananarivo, http://www.peaceau.org/en/article/conclusions-of-the-9th-meeting-of-the-international-contact-group-on-madagascar-icg-m-antananarivo-28-march-2014, retrieved on 11 July 2017

International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, Core documents: Understanding RtoP, http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/publications/core-rtop-documents, retrieved on 20 July 2017

Kotzé, Dirk. 1996. “The new (final) South African Constitutionâ€. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 8(2): 145-157

Mukherjee, Bumba. 2006. “Does third-party enforcement or domestic institutions promote enduring peace after civil war? Policy lessons from an empirical testâ€. Foreign Policy Analysis, 2: 428

News 24. 2015. “Madagascar government resigns over blackoutsâ€, 3 January 2015, http://www.news24.com/Africa/News/Madagascar-government-resigns-over-blackouts-20150113, retrieved on 15 July 2017

Office of the AU Panel of Eminent African Personalities. 2014. Back from the Brink: The 2008 mediation process and reforms in Kenya. Geneva: African Union, http://www.knchr.org/Portals/0/GeneralReports/backFromBrink_web.pdf , retrieved on 2 March 2015

Ohlson, Thomas. 1998. Power Politics and Peace Policies: Intra-state conflict resolution in Southern Africa. Report No. 50. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research

Pavel, Carmel E. 2015. Divided sovereignty: International institutions and the limits of state authority. New York: Oxford University Press

Philippe, Xavier. 2006. “The principle of universal jurisdiction and complementarity: how do the two principles intermesh?†International Review of the Red Cross 88, no. 862 (June): 375-398

Ravalomanana, Marc. 2012. Personal letter from Marc Ravalomanana to President Kikwete, 27 August 2012

Razafison, Rivonala. 2013. “Madagascar cabinet sets up new electoral courtâ€, Africa Review, 10 August 2013, http://africareview.com/News/Madagascar-sets-up-new-electoral-court/-/979180/1943176/-/liztob/-/index.html, retrieved on 12 July 2015

SADC. 14 January 2010. Communiqué, Double Troika Summit

SADC. 31 March 2011. Communiqué, Summit of the Organ Troika on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation, 31 March 2011, Livingstone, Republic of Zambia

SADC. 11-12 June 2011. Communiqué, Extraordinary Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Southern African Development Community, Sandton, Republic of South Africa, 11 and 12 June 2011

SADC. 20 Novemer 2011. Communiqué of the Extra-ordinary Summit of SADC Heads of State and Government, November 20, 2010, in Report to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Extraordinary Summit on Madagascar, ed. Mouvance Ravalomanana, 19 May 2011

SADC. 8 December 2012. Communiqué, Extraordinary Summit of SADC Heads of State and Government, 8 December 2012, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

SADC. 11 September 2013. Communiqué, Summit of the Organ Troika on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation plus DRC, Malawi and South Africa, Windhoek, Namibia

Samão, Leonardo. 2012. Personal letter from Leonardo Samão to Marc Ravalomanana, 22 August 2012

Stedman, Stephen J. 2002. “Introductionâ€, in Ending civil wars: The implementation of peace agreements. eds S.J. Stedman, D. Rothchild and E.M. Cousens. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers

United Nations Meetings Coverage and Press Releases. 2011. “Witnesses of Sudan’s Comprehensive Peace Agreement, in Joint Statement, Confirm Acceptance of Referendum’s Result in Favour of Southern Sudan’s Secessionâ€, 8 February 2011, SG/2169-AFR/2115, https://www.un.org/press/en/2011/sg2169.doc.htm, retrieved on 20 August 2017

Zartman, I.W. 1989. Ripe for Resolution: Conflict resolution in Africa. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press

Zartman, I. William. 2008. “’Ripeness’: the importance of timing in negotiation and conflict resolutionâ€. e-International Relations, http://www.e-ir.info/2008/12/20/ripeness-the -importance-of-timing-in-negotiation-and-conflict-resolution/, retrieved on 10 August 2017

Published
2019-08-29
Section
Articles